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Combatting Human Trafficking Since Palermo: What Do We Know about What Works?

In 2016, there were an estimated 40.3 million victims of modern slavery in the world, more than were enslaved during the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Since the adoption of the 2000 UN Trafficking Protocol, numerous efforts from inter-governmental agencies, governmental agencies, international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), and domestic non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have strived to combat the phenomena of human trafficking through legal-institutional means, direct interventions, and programs of support for those exploited. This anti-trafficking work has paid varying degrees of attention to the principles and methods of monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment, but has often been subject to the end of project evaluations. Similar to findings of reviews of evaluations in the international development sector, evaluations of anti-trafficking programing have primarily focused on assessing the progress of project implementation and the achievement of outputs, rather than tracking the achievement of outcomes or impact. This is further complicated by the hidden nature of human trafficking and the trauma experienced by human-trafficking victims. As a consequence, despite some evidence of raised awareness and increased levels of funding, organizations are still struggling to demonstrate impact and discern what works to combat human trafficking. This article analyses the evaluations of counter-trafficking programing produced since the Protocol to draw conclusions regarding the lessons learned from these interventions and the methods used to monitor and evaluate human-trafficking programs. By highlighting gaps, this article provides a series of suggestions on how to better track progress and impact toward the elimination of modern slavery.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Authors
Katharine Bryant
Todd Landman
Year
2020
Category

Spaces of Vulnerability and Areas Prone to Natural Disaster and Crisis in Six SADC Countries

In light of national, cross-border, transboundary and regional hazards of various type in Southern Africa, a desk review was undertaken by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in order to enhance the understanding of disaster risk and spaces of vulnerability (i.e. exposure to hazards) in terms of natural disaster and/or crisis situations in Southern Africa, and map the current disaster risk governance structure and preparedness capacity in the region. Six countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region – namely, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe – were targeted. Based on existing hazards, vulnerability and resilience, the concept of spaces of vulnerability (i.e. areas with higher exposure to risk), the review identifies spaces of vulnerability in the region to include the following elements: 1. Location of national or transboundary hazards and hazard-prone areas, including but not limited to the Zambezi, Limpopo and Okavango river basins; the Indian Ocean coastline; the East African Rift Valley; dry lands; and areas experiencing particularly unpredictable weather patterns. 2. Areas with increased level of vulnerability, including but not limited to: a. Rural areas with high poverty levels; depending on rain-fed agriculture and subsistence farming; with inadequate housing and/or access to basic services such as water and sanitation; at distance to or absence to health-care facilities; b. Urban areas not properly planned and/or informal settlements; with high poverty levels, unemployment, income inequality and social exclusion; with inadequate housing and/or access to basic services such as water and sanitation and/or otherwise poor infrastructure; with high population density; with a diverse community living in discord with each other and/or facing social tension; c. Border areas with a high level of cross-border population movement, or border areas where communities face transboundary hazards; d. Specific vulnerabilities faced by population groups or individuals, including but not limited to migrants and particularly undocumented migrants and “people of concern”; people living with HIV/AIDS; people with special needs; people disadvantaged by or living in the margins of a community/society. 3. Areas with little or no disaster risk management capacity – including absence of comprehensive planning for prevention, preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation activities. As such, disaster risk reduction and resilience initiatives adapted to national, cross-border, transboundary and regional hazards; development challenges and vulnerabilities; and disaster risk management systems are required, mainstreaming relevant regional dynamics such as sustainable development, climate change, urbanization, and migration into disaster risk management frameworks and operational mechanisms.
Country
Botswana
Malawi
Mozambique
South Africa
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Region
South Africa
Authors
Elham Pourazar
Year
2017
Category

ILO Generic Crisis Response Modules

Provides technical and operational information to promote effective response in four types of crisis situations: natural disasters, financial and economic downturns, armed conflicts and social and political transitions. Outlines the characteristics, causes and societal impact of each type of crisis and describes the ILO response in relation to pre-crisis preparedness and mitigation and response at the time of crisis and in the short and long-term. Focuses on the employment and decent work dimensions of crisis response.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Year
2002
Category

Independent Thematic Evaluation of the ILO’s Work in Post-Conflict, Fragile and Disaster-Affected Countries: Past, Present and Future. Annex 1 Country Reports

Since its foundation, the ILO has contributed to state building through social reform, by promoting democratic participation, social dialogue and fundamental rights. In more recent years, it has also highlighted the role of socio-economic programmes and policies in peace building and the recovery of countries involved in conflicts, violent social unrest, natural disasters and other types of crises, such as abrupt financial and economic downturns. Post-conflict, fragile and disaster-affected countries are characterized by instability, insecurity, poverty and inequality. The lack of employment opportunities and livelihoods, unemployment and underemployment, inequalities and lack of participation can in turn be catalysts for conflict, crises and fragility-aggravated poverty, unemployment and informality, creating a vicious circle leading to even greater fragility. Also, state fragility and the related instability may create “spill-over effects” and thus contribute to the destabilization of neighbouring states and regions. Nevertheless, ILO experience to date demonstrates that the promotion of employment and decent work in situations of fragility plays a key role in pulling individuals and societies out of crisis, and setting them on a sustainable development path.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Year
2015
Category

A Guide to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Legal Protection in Acute Emergencies

The guide summarizes an assessment of War Child Canada’s three-pronged legal protection model was implemented with South Sudanese refugees in Northern Uganda and uses it to identify the most important lessons for ensuring legal protection mechanisms are in place at the onset of an emergency. It is meant to help build the evidence base on what may be a replicable model, or set of practices, for survivor-centered SGBV legal protection services in emergency settings; expand understanding of positive practices and lessons learned; and help humanitarian actors gain the competencies needed to uphold their SGBV responsibilities.
Country
Uganda
South Sudan
Region
East Africa
Horn Of Africa
Year
2016
Category

Report on the National Action Plan to Fight Trafficking in Human Beings of the Republic of Azerbaijan

This report is developed in response to an official request submitted to the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) by the Main Department on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Department requested a feedback on the National Action Plan for fight against trafficking in human beings of the Republic of Azerbaijan 2014-2018 as well as support and suggestions for the development of the next 2019-2023 plan. The report is produced in the framework of the Prague Process Migration Observatory implemented through the “Prague Process: Dialogue, Analyses and Training in Action” (PP DATA) initiative, funded by the European Union and implemented by ICMPD in its capacity of Prague Process Secretariat. PP DATA aims at sustaining and further enhancing the cooperation established in the area of migration and asylum between the countries of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the Eastern Partnership, the Western Balkans, Central Asia, Russia and Turkey.
Country
Azerbaijan
Region
South Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Central Asia
Authors
Ivanka Heinzl
Year
2019
Category

Trafficking Along Migration Routes to Europe. Bridging the Gap Between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking

The years 2015-2016 saw an unprecedented increase in the numbers of people travelling by sea and overland along the migration route to the European Union (EU), with almost one and a half million people irregularly entering EU countries.This situation required frontline responders in these regions to be able to quickly identify and refer potential victims of trafficking in human beings (THB) among refugees, asylum applicants and migrants in an irregular situation. It also required the adoption of tailored protection and rehabilitation programmes for identified victims of trafficking among these people. This is particularly important for the protection of specific vulnerable groups, such as separated and unaccompanied children. The TRAM research assessment aims to contribute to the establishment of a solid knowledge base on this crucially important issue. It examines the incidence of trafficking in human beings and risk factors for THB in the context of the Balkan route and in destination countries. It also looks at the gaps, needs and challenges that exist in the identification, referral, protection and rehabilitation of victims of trafficking. The study found indications that trafficking and exploitation are a major cause of concern for migrants and refugees travelling along the Western Balkans route, yet the number of identified victims remains extremely low. The lack of statistical data is to a certain extent the result of a vicious circle, whereby if there is no evidence of trafficking cases among a certain group, the necessary resources are not mobilised to address THB and proactively identify cases, which in turn prevents the gathering of accurate statistics. The low number of identifications is also due to the lack of harmonisation and incorporation of anti-trafficking procedures into the first reception and asylum systems for new arrivals, leading to a disconnect between the two processes. The research also highlighted that in the context of the Balkan route, trafficking is often related to the migrant smuggling process, with exploitation occurring due to people being in debt to smugglers, and due to smugglers requesting increasing amounts of money for their services. The complexity of differentiating between the two distinct phenomena of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in human beings, and of understanding the points of convergence, contributes to making identification and referral procedures more difficult. From a migration policy perspective, the study found that increasingly restrictive border control policies and the lack of legal alternatives for onward movement play into the hands of unscrupulous smugglers, who use this opportunity to also perpetrate trafficking and other forms of exploitation, taking advantage of the vulnerable situation of migrants and refugees.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Authors
Roberto Forin
Claire Healy
Year
2018
Category

Behind Closed Doors Protecting and Promoting the Human Rights of Migrant Domestic Workers in an Irregular Situation

Around the world more than 50 million people, many of them women, are domestic workers. Of these, a significant number are migrants, including migrants who are in an irregular situation. The work they do is invaluable. Among a myriad other tasks, domestic workers clean, iron clothes, cook, garden, provide home health care, drive, and take care of children and older persons. This is necessary work, but work that often goes unnoticed, particularly when it is undertaken by irregular migrants who work unseen behind closed doors. In fact, labour legislation in several countries does not even recognize domestic work and often excludes domestic workers from access to rights and protections that are enjoyed by other categories of workers. Domestic workers often lack access to rights, to justice and to protection both as women and as migrants, creating an environment that often leads to serious human rights abuse. The situation of migrant domestic workers in an irregular situation is even more vulnerable. They are disproportionately subjected to human rights abuse, violations which often occur inside homes, where those responsible are able to operate with impunity and where victims are unseen and unprotected. The pattern of human rights abuses is similar all over the world. Migrant domestic workers in an irregular situation face exploitative working conditions and discrimination, they lack access to basic economic, social and cultural rights and are exposed to sexual andgender-based violence. If they live in their workplace, they can be forcibly confined, lack privacy, be deprived of food and sleep, and are often prohibited from contacting their families and friends. In some countries they are subject to invasive medical tests and can be fired if they become pregnant. Very often, domestic workers are not permitted to marry. Moreover, if they flee abuse, they may be detained for lacking documents and may be denied access to social or health services or legal remedies. At risk of xenophobia and violence in the community as well as in the workplace, many may be afraid to report their suffering to the police or other authorities for fear of deportation.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Year
2015
Category

Malawi 2015 Floods Post Disaster Needs Assessment Report

Heavy seasonal rainfall starting in December 2014 caused flooding across Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. In Malawi, the floods caused extensive damage to crops, livestock and infrastructure. The southern districts of Nsanje, Chikwawa, Phalombe and Zomba were the most affected. In response, the President of the Republic of Malawi declared a State of Disaster in 15 out of 28 affected districts on 13 January 2015. As of 11 March more than 106 have been reported dead, 172 are still missing and 230,000 people remain displaced. Following a request from the Malawian government, the PDNA tripartite partners, (UN, EU and WB) deployed a team of national and international experts to support government officials in assessing the floods’ impact and to identify actions and resources needed for recovery.Based upon the ILO’s Employment and Livelihoods assessment, it is estimated that out of 359,000 household enterprises, 15,000 have been destroyed and 19,000 damaged, resulting in 4 million work days. An additional income loss of 8 million USD is expected as a result of permanently or temporarily disrupted business operations.
Country
Malawi
Region
South Africa

Employment, Livelihoods & Social Protection: Guidelines for Post Disaster Needs Assessments

Post Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNAs) are jointly undertaken by the UNDG, the World Bank and the European Commission at the request of national governments in crisis affected countries. In the aftermath of a disaster, a PDNA is conducted to value the physical damages and change in economic flows and to identify recovery and reconstruction needs. These findings are integrated into a single assessment report. As a member of the UNDG, the ILO has developed the PDNA Vol B guidelines for the ‘Employment, Livelihoods and Social Protection’ (ELSP) Sector to outline how to assess and estimate the effects and impact of disasters on ELSP and to provide recommendations for reactivating economic activities and employment for livelihoods recovery. Although ELSP are treated as a single topic in this chapter, the ELSP methodology is “cross-cutting” and includes data and assessment results from the infrastructure, social and productive sectors of the PDNA. The ELSP guidelines are globally applied, most recently in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia after the 2014 Balkan floods, in Malawi after the 2015 Southern Africa Floods, in Vanuatu after the 2015 Tropical Cyclone Pam and in Nepal after the 2015 Himalayan Earthquakes.
Country
Worldwide
Region
Worldwide
Year
2015
Category